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Interpretation of the working principle of the air conditioner ···
2016-11-10

Air conditioning motor is one of the most important part of the air conditioning, no motor air conditioning will lose its meaning.
The air conditioner motor consists of several parts, compressor, fan motor (flow fan axial flow fan and cross), swing wind blade (step motor and synchronous motor), to a more detailed understanding of the working principle of air conditioner motor, we classify and explain in detail!
First, the principle of air conditioning compressor motor
1, single phase induction motor
Air conditioner for single-phase compressor has two windings, i.e. starting winding and winding operation (main winding), three terminals, namely public end, start end, end of operation, the general operation using capacitor driven, the constant speed control.
From the start to the normal operation of the motor, the auxiliary winding circuit is always connected to a capacitor, so that the electrical performance is good, the efficiency and power factor is high, the work is reliable.
2, three phase asynchronous motor
And the structure of single-phase motor is similar, different from the 3 groups of three-phase stator winding is completely symmetrical, the three windings embedded in the stator core slot, and the spatial distribution of stagger 120 degree angle.
3 winding can be connected in Y shape, can be connected into a shape, when the stator windings pass into the three-phase symmetrical current (i.e. three-phase current in time phase on 120 DEG. electric degrees), will produce a rotating magnetic field in the air gap between the rotor and the stator, the rotor due to electromagnetic induction and electromagnetic. Moment.
The structure of the three-phase asynchronous motor is simple, excellent performance, torque, efficiency and power factor are compared with the single-phase asynchronous motor is high, so the power of air conditioner is larger, such as compressor air conditioner adopts three-phase asynchronous motor.
3, variable frequency motor
As long as the power frequency of the asynchronous motor is changed, the different speed of the motor can be obtained.
Variable frequency speed control not only can achieve smooth and adjustable speed, and wide range of speed, high efficiency, fast response, small starting current, small impact on the power grid, good comfort performance, is a kind of energy-saving ideal speed control method.
In particular, heat pump type air conditioner, can be controlled by frequency conversion speed of heat pump system, the size of the outdoor temperature is not limited, and thus greatly improve the heating capacity.
Frequency converter working process: inverter generally used indirect frequency (AC - DC - AC) mode, by the rectifier and inverter two process.
Power frequency (50Hz) power grid current through the power filter after pretreatment to the rectifier module (such as diode bridge rectifier, DC rectifier) out of the direct input inverter module (such as the use of IGBT as the basic components of the IPM module).
Inverter module in the CPU chip to drive the signal under the effect of DC power into different frequency of alternating current, the supply of the compressor.
Working principle of IPM inverter module: IPM module uses IGBT (insulated gate bipolar transistor) as switching element.
CPU sent six driving signals (that is, as the IGBT base signal) respectively, control the three-phase inverter circuit of the six IGBT switch off.
In each cycle, every 60 degree turns to control the on-off of each IGBT in order to obtain a certain frequency of three phase alternating current at the output end of the inverter circuit.
By controlling the length of the IGBT switch off time (i.e., the positive half cycle and negative half cycle pulse width of each phase), the different frequency of alternating current can be obtained at the output end of the three phase.
Two, the principle of air conditioning fan motor
Air conditioner fan motor for the general single-phase induction motor, the use of PSC connection mode.
According to the use of the need, the fan motor can be used for speed control, speed control methods are: stator winding tap type speed control, SCR Speed Control, etc..
1, tap type speed regulation
The working voltage of the primary winding of the stator winding is changed by changing the number of turns, thereby changing the flux, adjust the speed to. The stator winding of PSC motor is composed of three parts, which are the main winding, the secondary winding and the middle winding (speed regulating winding).
2, SCR Speed Control
Also called silicon controlled thyristor, a unidirectional thyristor and a bidirectional thyristor two, one-way thyristor characteristics when the thyristor under positive anode voltage, the gate by a positive voltage and a certain gate current, conducting element.
In the case of the pipe, the door is very lost. In the case of the conduction, only when the positive anode voltage is reduced to a certain value or the anode voltage becomes negative, the pipe end is switched off.
Triac characteristics, pipe at turn-on, when the voltage drop below the minimum voltage to maintain the conduction or into reverse, the pipe cut-off, until the next trigger signal (pulse) comes to conduction.

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